Intrinsic Motivation Inventory

This is an instrument developed by Ryan, Mims, and Koestner (1983), where they found that intrinsic motivation is related to five factors: interest-enjoyment, perceived competence, effort, pressure-tension, and perceived choice. This later evolved into the Self Determination model looking at factors of Autonomy, Competence, and Relatedness.


The items used are rated on a 7-point Likert scale (1 not at all true, 7 very true):

  1. I feel like I am free to decide for myself how to live my life

  2. I really like the people I interact with

  3. Often, I do not feel very competent

  4. I feel pressured in my life

  5. People I know tell me I am good at what I do

  6. I get along with people I come into contact with

  7. I pretty much keep to myself and don’t have a lot of social contacts

  8. I generally feel free to express my ideas and opinions

  9. I consider the people I regularly interact with to be my friends

  10. I've been able to learn interesting new skills recently

  11. In my daily li, I frequently have to do what I am told

  12. People in my life care about me

  13. Most days I feel a sense of accomplishment from what I do

  14. People I interact with on a daily basis tend to take my feelings into consideration

  15. In my life, I do not get much of a chance to show how capable I am

  16. There are not many people that I am close to

  17. I feel like I can pretty much be myself in my daily situations

  18. The people I interact with regularly do not seem to like me much

  19. I often do not feel very capable

  20. There is not much opportunity for me to decide for myself how to do things in my daily e

  21. People are generally pretty friendly toward me


First reverse score all items that are negative (3, 4, 7, 11, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, subtract 8 from the answer)

Average all times for each subscale:

  • Autonomy: 1, 4(R), 8, 11(R), 14, 17, 20(R)

  • Competence: 3(R), 5, 10, 13, 15(R), 19(R)

  • Relatedness: 2, 6, 7(R), 9, 12, 16(R), 18(R), 21


R. Ryan, V. Mims, and R. Koestner. (1983). Relation of reward contingency and interpersonal context to intrinsic motivation: A review and test using cognitive evaluation theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 45, pp. 450-461.

Rigby and Ryan. (2007). The Player Experience of Need Satisfaction (PENS). White Paper.

Geneva Appraisal Questionnaire

This instrument is based on the component process emotion model developed by Scherer et al. The model is an appraisal model of emotion in which stimuli are checked for specific qualities and emotions are developed based on that. These qualities are: novelty, goal and need significance, coping potential, and compatibility with standards.

The Questionnaire is available online

More information on implementation and scoring can be found here


K. R. Scherer. (2001). Appraisal considered as a process of multi-level sequential checking. In K. R. Scherer, A. Schorr, and T. Jonstone (Eds.). Appraisal Process in Emotion: Theory, Methods, Research. Oxford University Press.


A 20-item Likert scale to measure Positive and Negative Affect/moods. Positive and negative affect have been shown to relate to other personality states and traits, such as anxiety.


The questionnaire asks participants to rate 20 items (1 very slightly or not at all, to 5 extremely)

  1. Interested

  2. distressed

  3. excited

  4. upset

  5. strong

  6. guilty

  7. scared

  8. hostile

  9. enthusiastic

  10. proud

  11. irritable

  12. alert

  13. ashamed

  14. inspired

  15. nervous

  16. determined

  17. attentive

  18. jittery

  19. active

  20. afraid

This can measure how the participant feels in the moment, today, over the past few days or weeks, year, or in general

More information on implementation and scoring can be found here


David Watson and Lee Anna Clark. (1988). Development and Validation of Brief Measures of Positive and Negative Affect: The PANAS Scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 54, No. 6, pp. 1063-1070.

Game Engagement Questionnaire

The Game Engagement Questionnaire was developed and validated to measure engagement in games. Researchers investigated multiple constructs to develop this questionnaire, including Presence, Flow, Absorption, and Dissociation.


The GEQ is a 19-item questionnaire where participants answer the following items on a three-point (no, maybe, yes) Likert scale:

  1. I lose track of time (Absorption)

  2. Things seem to happen automatically (Presence)

  3. I feel different (Absorption)

  4. I feel scared (Absorption)

  5. The game feels real (Flow)

  6. If someone talks to me, I don’t hear them (Flow)

  7. I get wound up (Flow)

  8. Time seems to kind of stand still or stop (Absorption)

  9. I feel spaced out (Absorption)

  10. I don’t answer when someone talks to me (Flow)

  11. I cannot tell that I’m getting tired (Flow)

  12. Playing seems automatic (Flow)

  13. My thoughts go fast (Presence)

  14. I lose track of where I am (Absorption)

  15. I play without thinking about how to play (Flow)

  16. Playing makes me feel calm (Flow)

  17. I play longer than I meant to (Presence)

  18. I really get into the game (Immersion)

  19. I feel like I just can’t stop playing (Flow)


The responses can be converted to numbers (i.e. "no = 1" and "yes = 3") which can be averaged across the entire questionnaire and within each construct.


Jeanne H. Brockmyer, Christine M. Fox, Kathleen A. Curtiss, Evan McBroom, Kimberly M. Burkhart, Jacquelyn N. Pidruzny. (2009). The development of the Game Engagement Questionaire: A measure of engagement in video game playing. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. Vol. 45, pp. 624-634.

Networked Minds Measure of Social Presence

Scale is based on two constructs: co-presence, psycho-behavioral interaction, and subjective and intersubjective symmetry (calculated as a correlation between the other two).

The scale can be found here

A guide on how to use it can be found here


Frank Biocca, Chad Harms, and Jenn Gregg. (2001). The Networked Minds Measure of Social Presence: Pilot Test of the Factor Structure and Concurrent Validity.The 4th annual International Workshop on Presence.

Social Presence in Gaming Questionnaire

The Social Presence in Gaming Questionnaire (SPGQ) consists of a number of items borrowed from the Networked Minds Measure of Social Presence questionnaire.


The questionnaire is as follows. Scales range from 0 to 4.

  • Psychological Involvement – Empathy

  1. When the others were happy, I was happy

  2. When I was happy, the others were happy

  3. I empathized with the other(s)

  4. I felt connected to the other(s)

  5. I admired the other(s)

  6. I found it enjoyable to be with the other(s)

  7. I sympathized with the other(s)

  • Psychological Involvement – Negative feeling

  1. I tended to ignore the other

  2. The other tended to ignore me

  3. I felt revengeful

  4. I felt schadenfreude (malicious delight)

  5. I felt jealous of the other

  6. I envied the other

  • Behavioral Engagement

  1. My actions depended on the other’s actions

  2. The other’s actions were dependent on my actions

  3. What the others did affected what I did

  4. What I did affected what the other did

  5. The other paid close attention to me

  6. I paid close attention to the other

  7. My intentions were clear to the other

  8. The other’s intentions were clear to me


The score is the mean for each scale.


Yvonne A. W. de Kort, Wijnand A. Ijsselsteijn, and Karolien Poels. (2007). Digital Games as Social Presence Technology: Development of the Social Presence in Gaming Questionnaire (SPGQ). In Proceedings of PRESENCE 2007: The 10th International Workshop on Presence (2007), pp. 195-203.

Immersive Tendencies Questionnaire

The ITQ (Immersive Tendencies Questionnaire) relies on several factors that contribute to the sense of immersive tendencies and these include tendency to become involved in activities, tendency to maintain focus on current activities, and tendency to play video games.

The 18-Item Questionnaire and scoring information can be found here


Bob G. Witmer and Michael J. Singer. (1998). Measuring Presence in Virtual Environments: A Presence Questionnaire. Presence, Vol. 7, No. 3.

Presence Questionnaire

The Presence Questionnaire (PQ) relies on several factors that contribute to the sense of presence: Control Factors: degree of control, immediacy of control, anticipation of events, mode of control, and physical environment modifiability. Sensory Factors: sensory modality, environmental richness, multimodal presentation, consistency of multimodal information, and degree of movement perception active search. Distraction Factors: isolation, selective attention, and interface awareness. Realism Factors: scene realism, information consistent with objective world, meaningfulness of experience, and separation anxiety/disorientation.

An updated version of the questionnaire and scoring information can be found here


Bob G. Witmer and Michael J. Singer. (1998). Measuring Presence in Virtual Environments: A Presence Questionnaire. Presence, Vol. 7, No. 3.

Measuring Audience Experience

The questionnaire for measuring audience experience is based on 5 key constructs for non-playing audience members, that is enjoyment, mood, game engagement, social engagement, and perceived participation.


The final measurement instrument consists of 28 items, each item is presented on a fully labelled, 7-point Likert-type scale, with the extremes of the scale labelled as “Strongly Disagree”(1) and “Strongly Agree” (7), and (4) labelled as “Neutral”. The order of items is randomized.

  • Enjoyment

    1. I enjoyed watching the player

    2. I found the game enjoyable

    3. I enjoyed my part in the game session

    4. I had fun

    5. I enjoyed watching the game

    6. I found the content and theme of this game enjoyable

  • Mood

    1. I felt good

    2. I felt happy

    3. I felt annoyed

    4. I felt embarrassed

    5. I felt bored

  • Game Engagement

    1. I was fully occupied with the game

    2. I was completely engaged in the game

    3. I lost track of time

    4. I forgot everything around me except the game session

    5. I thought about things other than the game session

    6. I was deeply concentrating on the game

  • Social Engagement

    1. I felt like part of a team

    2. I felt involved

    3. The player paid close attention to me

    4. I felt like I interacted with the player

    5. I paid close attention to the player

    6. I felt connected to the player

    7. What the player did/said affected me

    8. What I did/said affected the player

  • Participation

    1. I felt like I had participated in the game session

    2. I felt like an active participant


Averages can be calculated across the entire scale and for each sub-scale


Downs,J.Vetere,F.Howard,S.,&Loughnan, S.(2013, November). Measuring audience experience in social videogaming. In Proceedings of the 25th Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference: Augmentaiton, Application, Innovation, Collaboration(pp.217-220).ACM.

Player Experience Inventory

The Player Experience Inventory (PXI) provides a reliable tool to measure player experience across a variety of game genres and gamified applications based on Means-End theory and the 'Mechanics-Dynamics-Aesthetics' (MDA) Framework.

More information and the full instrument (and variants) can be found here


Abeele, V. V., Spiel, K., Nacke, L., Johnson, D., & Gerling, K. (2020). Development and validation of the player experience inventory: A scale to measure player experiences at the level of functional and psychosocial consequences. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 135, 102370.

Vanden Abeele, V., Nacke, L. E., Mekler, E. D., & Johnson, D. (2016, October). Design and preliminary validation of the player experience inventory. In Proceedings of the 2016 Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play Companion Extended Abstracts (pp. 335-341).